Flow Cytometry

Cartoon lymphocyte, or immune cell with fluorescent antibodies for flow cytometry going with the flow

Flowcytometry is a technology that can be used to phenotype cells by analyzing the expression of cell surface and intracellular molecules. It rapidly analyzes single cells or particles as they flow past single or multiple lasers while suspended in a buffered salt-based solution. Each particle is analyzed for visible light scatter and one or multiple …

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Favorite Podcasts of 2022

Cell cartoons with headphones listening to podcasts

I love podcasts ! I think it is a great medium and I am always looking for new recommendations. I used to listen to podcasts during my commute to work but these days that I work from home I listen while I am cleaning, washing dishes, vacuuming, prepping food, etc. I listen to all sorts …

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Killer T Cell

CD8 Cytotoxic T Cell Sticker

Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), also known as Killer T cells,  are a special type of T cells with the ability to kill other cells. Usually they kill cells that have been infected with a virus. This way the virus can no longer use these cells for replicating inside of them. CTLs secrete cytotoxins to kill the other …

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Immune Warriors

immune cell warriors such as dendritic cell, T cell, B cell, neutrophil and eosinophil

Our immune cells are our own little personal warriors that keep us safe from the “bad guys” which are usually disease causing microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. To learn about these cells with a card game a group at the Institute of Immunity and Transplantation at University College of London together with designer …

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DAPI Staining

Immune cell cartoon of a lymphocyte stained with DAPI stained and erythrocyte cell that finds it funny

API stands for 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and it is a fluorescent stain that binds to DNA in the nucleus. It is a stain used very often in fluorescence microscopy, when excited with ultraviolet light DAPI emits a blue light. This makes the stain very popular in fluorescence microscopy making the nuclei visible in a blue colour. Scientists …

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Neutrophils phagocytosis bacteria

Phagocytosis is the process by which particulate material is endocytosed (“eaten”) by a cell (From Greek phagein, to eat.). The process of phagocytosis is one of the many different ways our immune cells fight infections. Macrophages and neutrophils are cells of the immune system that use phagocytosis to bind and ingest invading microorganisms. Phagocytosis is a complex mechanism that …

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Cartoon of granulocytes: neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil

The granulocytes are so called because they have densely granules in their cytoplasm; they are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their lobulated nuclei. There are three types of granulocytes: Neutrophils can perform phagocytosis and are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant type of white blood cells overall in most mammals. Eosinophils make up …

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transfected dendritic cell (DC) with GFP green flourescent protein

This video shows how dendritic cells growing in culture are transfected with a plasmid containing a gene for the Green fluorescent protein (GFP). Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells. Various methods can be used to transfect. Electroporation, shown in this video, is a technique by which an externally applied …

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